In New Zealand the shared milking model accounts for 34% of dairy farming operations, the concept has evolved over time and is governed by legislation to protect the rights of the participants. Equity partnerships are also common and work well in New Zealand, however these partnerships are legally constituted as companies and are often more an investment vehicle than a farming partnership.
Joint farming is popular in Norway accounting for 20% of dairy farmers.
Long term leasing and succession planning is very prominent in France and is actively encouraged through local arrangements, security of tenure, and young farmer supports. Partnership arrangements receive favourable state treatment and have evolved to cater for various circumstances and arrangements, allowing for numerous partners, active and non active partners, transferability of share, limited liability and outside investment. The GAEC is a very popular arrangement in France, under which each partner is a farmer in his/her own right.
Contract farming and long term tenant arrangements are common in the UK.
In the USA and Canada share cropping is widely practiced as are various forms of partnership.
Terminology can vary between different countries so the arrangement type covered by a particular term can differ significantly between countries.
In Ireland Conacre is very much the dominant arrangement and is without doubt the least efficient for farm development, tax efficiency, and farm progression.